Hazard assessment of the effects of acute and chronic exposure to permethrin, copper hydroxide, acephate, and validamycin nanopesticides on the physiology of drosophila: novel insights into the cellular internalization and biological effects
Kandur, Muhammed Yusuf
Turna Demir, Fatma
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New insights into the interactions between nanopesticides and edible plants are required in order to elucidate their impacts on human health and agriculture. Nanopesticides include formulations consisting of organic/inorganic nanoparticles. Drosophila melanogaster has become a powerful model in genetic research thanks to its genetic similarity to mammals. This project mainly aimed to generate new evidence for the toxic/genotoxic properties of different nanopesticides (a nanoemulsion (permethrin nanopesticides, 20 ± 5 nm), an inorganic nanoparticle as an active ingredient (copper(II) hydroxide [Cu(OH)2] nanopesticides, 15 ± 6 nm), a polymer-based nanopesticide (acephate nanopesticides, 55 ± 25 nm), and an inorganic nanoparticle associated with an organic active ingredient (validamycin nanopesticides, 1177 ± 220 nm)) and their microparticulate forms (i.e., permethrin, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), acephate, and validamycin) widely used against agricultural pests, while also showing the merits of using Drosophila—a non-target in vivo eukaryotic model organism—in nanogenotoxicology studies. Significant biological effects were noted at the highest doses of permethrin (0.06 and 0.1 mM), permethrin nanopesticides (1 and 2.5 mM), CuSO4·5H2O (1 and 5 mM), acephate and acephate nanopesticides (1 and 5 mM, respectively), and validamycin and validamycin nanopesticides (1 and 2.5 mM, respectively). The results demonstrating the toxic/genotoxic potential of these nanopesticides through their impact on cellular internalization and gene expression represent significant contributions to future nanogenotoxicology studies.